Source: Elisabeth Hoffman, The Fletcher Forum of World AffairsHoffman looks at transitional peacebuilding at the grassroots level. She examines how traditional approaches toward forgiveness and reconciliation impact peacebuilding, using the experience of the Fambul Tok program in Sierra Leone.
Source: Elizabeth Cole in Teaching the Violent Past, History Education and ReconciliationThis introduction attempts to give an overview of current understandings of sociopolitical reconciliation as well as analyze the relationship between history education and reconciliation. Primary themes covered include: the differences between transition and reconciliation; Christian undertones of and variations on wording applied to reconciliation; key components and actors within the reconciliation process; recent contributions to new understandings of reconciliation; and the importance of history education and its place within reconciliation. The author concludes by emphasizing both the need for the global community to work together to promote reconciliation and to incorporate positive history education within the peacebuilding approach.
Source: Daniel Philpott, Journal of International Affairs 61, no. 1This paper investigates the role of the religious paradigm of reconciliation in transitional justice as well as its potential for healing divided societies. Topics discussed include: what transitional justice means; the difference between the two paradigms of transitional justice, that is, the liberal human rights paradigm, rooted in the Enlightenment and focusing on the punishment of perpetrators and the vindication of victims, and the reconciliation paradigm, rooted in the Abrahamic religious traditions and focusing on forgiveness and healing; what reconciliation means; current debates concerning reconciliation and transitional justice, including the relationship between forgiveness and punishment, the compatibility of reconciliation with the politics of modern liberal democracy and issues regarding the religiosity of the reconciliation paradigm; and religion and reconciliation in practice in fifteen cases of political transitions away from conflict and authoritarianism, including Guatemala, Brazil, Chile, South Africa and Rwanda, amongst others. The author argues that a wide array of religions and cultures contain a political theology or culturally-rooted concept of reconciliation in which a more holistic transformation of society is encouraged and embraced. He concludes that the political influence of religious actors who embrace the reconciliation paradigm is only efficacious when they remain autonomous from the regime they want to influence.
Source: www.c-r.orgConciliation Resources is an independent charity working to prevent violence and promote justice. The site includes access to the following: the Accord publication series; policy briefings, reports and working papers; educational materials, such as source packs on managing conflict and discussion packs on specific crises; audio and video; and an online store where users can purchase CR materials; and links and reports on peace processes throughout Africa, the Caucasus and Fiji. The site also provides access to valuable lessons learned in reconciliation from post-conflict processes after conflicts in Africa.
Source: http://www.ifor.org/aroundtheworld.htm The International Fellowship of Reconciliation seeks to overcome divisions in nation-states. The site has an extensive library of resources, books and videos concentrating on non-violence and reconciliation. With branches around the world and representation at the UN, the IFOR site provides information about its reconciliation programs and research on crosscutting issues such as gender, youth, education and training. Users can also access IFR’s nonviolence library, which provides definitions on key terminology used in its programs, such as nonviolence and gender, a timeline of nonviolent action and international instruments of peace.
Source: http://www.idea.int/rrn The Reconciliation Resource Network is an online initiative coordinated by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) and the Swiss Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The site provides information about their projects by country and theme, with a focus on reconciliation and crosscutting issues such as gender, democracy and dialogue. The Network also partners with diverse organizations on reconciliation projects in Sudan and the Great Lakes region, focusing on educating citizens about peaces processes and reconciliation. Reconciliation Resource Network also provides discussions forums on the latest debates, with links to organizations and individuals working on peacebuilding.
Policy Analysis and Practitioner Documents (3 Matches)
Source: Karen Brouneus in a Study Prepared for Workshop 8 – “Reconciliation.” The aim of this background study is to give a shared point of departure for discussion on the critical issues of reconciliation and development after war. The study analyzes the reconciliation approach to peacebuilding from three societal levels: top-level, middle-range and grassroots. Primary issues discussed include: the relationship between reconciliation and justice; results and new developments from truth commissions; the links between reconciliation and security; political initiatives for reconciliation, such as active legislation; reinforcement of the post-conflict state to prevent tensions between need, ambition and realization of reconciliation programs; and the complexities of truth-telling with regards to trauma, reparations and culture. The author argues that reconciliation has become a necessary part of peacebuilding not only because more conflicts are intrastate, but also because opposing parties will need to coexist once a peace agreement has been signed. The author states that coexistence after conflict is only plausible through reconciliation and concludes by emphasizing the need for more empirical data to identify the lessons learned, the risks and the improvements necessary for sustainable peace.
Source: Brandon Hamber and Grainne Kelly This paper examines reconciliation within the political and community-based post-conflict structure of Northern Ireland and defines reconciliation within terms applicable to this structure. Primary themes developed include: differentiating peacemaking from peacebuilding; reviewing a range of existing definitions of peacebuilding; defining a premise and process for reconciliation that derive from five connecting stages, including developing a shared vision of an interdependent and fair society, acknowledging and dealing with the past, building positive relationships, significant cultural and attitudinal change and substantial social, economic and political change; and the paradoxes and contradictions inherent to reconciliation. The authors argue that despite the multiple definitions applicable to reconciliation, it is the individual’s underlying ideologies and assumptions that eventually define their attitudes towards reconciliation. The authors conclude that reconciliation is a dynamic process where dialogue informs practice, and vice versa.
Source: Luc Huyse in Reconciliation after Violent ConflictThis handbook aims to clarify the concept of reconciliation in peacebuilding. Primary issues covered include: what reconciliation is, who is involved, how it is accomplished and when to commence reconciliation programs; the dynamic nature of reconciliation in practice; the three stages of reconciliation, that is, replacing fear by non-violent coexistence, building confidence and trust and moving towards empathy; the political, legal and economic structures that support the three stages; the methodology and actors involved; local ownership of the reconciliation process; balancing reconciliation with justice; and the importance of time within the reconciliation process. The author argues that reconciliation within peacebuilding is a dynamic process with many actors that takes substantial time to achieve through an evolutionary process of action and reaction. He states that reconciliation is heavily influenced by an individual’s experience during a conflict and that these individuals may find themselves at different stages within the reconciliation process. He concludes that only through a balanced dynamic and timely procedure can trustful relations be reinstated.